Call Toll Free 855-517-2170

PUBLICATIONS

Published References:

The following are references to studies of tongue and lip strength in normal subjects and, in some cases, patients with swallowing problems or other disease states. The listing is chronological, with newer studies first. Normal values are provided by these studies directly, or, in the case of studies with patients, they have been abstracted from their control groups.
  1. Namasivayam AM, Steele CM, & Keller H. (2016). The effect of tongue strength on meal consumption in long term care. Clinical Nutrition, 35:1078-1083.
  2. VanRavenhorst-Bell HA, Mefferd AS, Coufal KL, Scudder R, & Patterson J. (2016). Tongue strength and endurance: Comparison in active and non-active young and older adults. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 19:1-10.
  3. Park T, & Kim Y. (2016). Effects of tongue pressing effortful swallow in older healthy individuals. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 66:127-133.
  4. Steele CM, Bayley MT, Peladeau-Pigeon M, Nagy A, Namasivayam AM, Stokely SL, & Wolkin T. (2016). A Randomized Trial Comparing Two Tongue-Pressure Resistance Training Protocols for Post-Stroke Dysphagia. Dysphagia, 31:452-461.
  5. De Felicio CM, da Silva Dias FV, Folha GA, de Almeida LA, de Souza JF, Anselmo-Lima ET, Trawitzki LV, & Valera FC. (2016). Orofacial motor functions in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea and implications for myofunctional therapy. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 90:5-11.
  6. Rogus-Pulia NM, Larson C, Mittal BB, Pierce M, Zecker S, Kennelty K, Kind A, & Connor NP. (2016). Effects of Change in Tongue Pressure and Salivary Flow Rate on Swallow Efficiency Following Chemoradiation Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer. Dysphagia, 31:687-696.
  7. Byeon H. (2016). Effect of orofacial myofunctional exercise on the improvement of dysphagia patients’ orofacial muscle strength and diadochokinetic rate. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 28:2611-2614.
  8. Park JS, Kim HJ, & Oh DH. (2015). Effect of tongue strength training using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument in stroke patients with dysphagia. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27:3631–3634.
  9. Oh JC. (2015). Effects of Tongue Strength Training and Detraining on Tongue Pressures in Healthy Adults. Dysphagia, 30:315-320.
  10. Su H, Hsiao TY, Ku S, Wang T, Lee JJ, Tzeng WC, Huang GH, & Chen CC. (2015). Tongue Weakness and Somatosensory Disturbance Following Oral Endotracheal Extubation. Dysphagia, 30:188-195.
  11. Meier, A. (2015). Lingual Strengthening: Success in an Outpatient Setting. Perspectives on Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia), 24:71-74.
  12. Park JS, You SJ, Kim JY, Yeo SG, & Lee JH. (2015). Differences in orofacial muscle strength according to age and sex in East Asian healthy adults. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 94:677-686.
  13. Mendes AE, Nascimento L, Mansur LL, Callegaro D, & Jacob Filho W. (2015). Tongue forces and handgrip strength in normal individuals: association with swallowing. Clinics (Sao Paulo), 70:41-45.
  14. Prandini EL, Totta T, Bueno Mda R, Rosa RR, Giglio LD, Trawitzki LV, Berretin-Felix G, Felicio CM, & Genaro KF. (2015). Analysis of tongue pressure in Brazilian young adults. Codas, 27:478-482.
  15. Oh J. (2015). Effects of tongue strength training and detraining on tongue pressures in healthy adults. Dysphagia, 30:315-320.
  16. Jones H, Crisp K, Asrani P, Sloane R, & Kishnani, P. (2015). Quantitative assessment of lingual strength in late-onset Pompe disease. Muscle Nerve, 51:731-735.
  17. Su H, Hsiao T, Ku S, Wang, T, Lee J, Tzeng W, Huang G, & Chen C. (2015). Tongue weakness and somatosensory disturbance following oral endotracheal extubation. Dysphagia, 30:188-195.
  18. Jones H, Crisp K, Asrani P, Sloane R, & Kishnani P. (2015). Quantitative assessment of lingual strength in late-onset Pompe Disease. Muscle Nerve, 51:731-735.
  19. Neel AT, Palmer PM, Sprouls G, Morrison L. (2015). Muscle weakness and speech in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58:1-12.
  20. Van Lierde KM, Bettens K, Luyten A, Plettinck J, Bonte K, Vermeersch H, & Roche N. (2014). Oral strength in subjects with a unilateral cleft lip and palate. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 78:1306-1310.
  21. Adams V, Mathisen B, Baines S, Lazarus C, & Callister R. (2014). Reliability of Measurements of Tongue and Hand Strength and Endurance Using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument with Health Adults. Dysphagia, 29:83-95.
  22. Van Lierde K, Bettens K, Luyten A, Plettinck J, Bonte K, Vermeersch H, & Roche N. (2014). Oral strength in subjects with a unilateral cleft lip and palate. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 78:1306-1310.
  23. Adams, V, Mathisen, B, Baines, S, Lazarus, C, & Callister, R. (2013). A systematic review and meta-analysis of measurements of tongue and hand strength and endurance using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI). Dyspagia, 28:350-369.
  24. Malandraki GA, Kaufman A, Hind J, Ennis S, Gangnon R, Waclawik A, Robbins J. (2012) The effects of lingual intervention in a patient with inclusion body myositis and Sjögren's syndrome: a longitudinal case study. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation, 93:1469-1475.
  25. Vanderwegen J, Guns C, Van Nuffelen G, Elen R, & DeBodt M. (2012). The Influence of Age, Sex, Bulb Position, Visual Feedback, and the Order of Testing on Maximum Anterior and Posterior Tongue Strength and Endurance in Healthy Belgian Adults. Dysphagia, 28:159-166.
  26. Neel AT, & Palmer PM. (2012). Is tongue strength an important influence on rate of articulation in diadochokinetic and reading tasks?. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 55:235-246.
  27. Clark HM, & Solomon NP. (2012). Age and sex differences in orofacial strength. Dysphagia, 27: 2-9.
  28. Perry ES, Potter NL, Rambo KD, & Short R. (2011). Effects of strength training on neuromuscular facial rehabilitation. Developmental Rehabilitation, 14:164-170.
  29. Butler, S.G., Stuart, A., Leng, X., Wilhelm, E., Rees, C., Williamson,J. & Kritchevsky, S.B. (2011). The relationship of aspiration status with tongue and handgrip strength in healthy older adults. Journal of Gerontology A: Biological Science and Medical Science, 66:452-458.
  30. Yoshikawa M, Yoshida M, Tsuga K, Akagawa Y, & Groher ME. (2011). Comparison of three types of tongue pressure measurement devices. Dysphagia, 26:232-237.
  31. Vitorino J. (2010). Effect of age on tongue strength and endurance scores of healthy Portuguese speakers. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12: 237-243.
  32. Palmer PM, Neel AT, Sprouls G, & Morrison L. (2010). Swallow characteristics in patients with oculopharyngeal dystrophy. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53:1567-1578.
  33. Steele CM, Bailey GL, & Molfenter SM. (2010). Tongue pressure modulation during swallowing: water versus nectar-thick liquids. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53: 273-283.
  34. Steele CM, Bailey GL, Molfenter SM, Yeates EM & Grace-Martin K. (2010). Pressure profile similarities between tongue resistance training tasks and liquid swallows. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 47: 651-660.
  35. Kays SA, Hind JA, Gangnon RE, & Robbins J. (2010). Effects of dining on tongue endurance and swallowing-related outcomes. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53: 898-907.
  36. Potter NL, & Short R. (2009). Maximal tongue strength in typically developing children and adolescents. Dysphagia, 24: 391-397.
  37. Clark HM, O’Brien K, Calleja A, & Corrie SN. (2009). Effects of directional exercise on lingual strength. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 52: 1034-1047, 2009.
  38. Youman SR, Youmans GL, & Stierwalt JAG. (2009). Differences in tongue strength across age and gender: Is there a diminished strength reserve? Dysphagia, 24:57-65.
  39. White R, Cotton SM, Hind J, Robbins J, & Perry A. (2009). A comparison of the reliability and stability of oro-lingual swallowing pressures in patients with head and neck cancer and healthy adults. Dysphagia, 24:137-144.
  40. Steele CM, & Van Lieshout P. (2009). Tongue movements during water swallowing in healthy young and older adults. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 52, 1255-1267.
  41. Utanohara Y, Hayashi R, Yoshikawa M, Yoshida M, Tsuga K, & Akagawa Y. (2008). Standard values of maximum tongue pressure taken using newly developed disposable tongue pressure measurement device. Dysphagia, 23: 286-290.
  42. Yeates EM, Molfenter SM, & Steele CM. (2008). Improvements in tongue strength and pressure-generation precision following a tongue-pressure training protocol in older individuals with dysphagia: Three case reports. Clinical Intervention in Aging, 3:735-747.
  43. Solomon NP, Clark HM, Makashay MJ, & Newman LA. (2008). Assessment of orofacial strength in patients with dysarthria. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 16, 251-258.
  44. Robbins J, Kays SA, Gangnon RE, Hind JA, Hewitt AL, Gentry LR, & Taylor A.J. (2007). The effects of lingual exercise in stroke patients with dysphagia. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 88: 150-158.
  45. Stierwalt JAG, & Youmans SR. (2007). Tongue measures in individuals with normal and impaired swallowing. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16: 148-156.
  46. Youmans, S.R., & Stierwalt, JAG. (2006). Measures of tongue function related to normal swallowing. Dysphagia 21: 102-111.
  47. Neel AT, Palmer PM, Sprouls G, & Morrison L. (2006). Tongue strength and speech intelligibility in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 14: 273-277.
  48. Robbins JM, Gangnon RE, Theis SM, Kays SA, Hewitt AL, & Hind JA. (2005). The effects of lingual exercise on swallowing in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 53: 1483-1489.
  49. Solomon NP, & Munson B. (2004). The effect of jaw position on measures of tongue strength and endurance Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47: 584-594.
  50. Lazarus C, Logemann JA, Huang CF, & Rademaker AW. (2003). Effects of two types of tongue strengthening exercises in young normals. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 55: 199-205.
  51. Clark HM, Henson PA, Barber WD, Stierwalt JA, & Sherrill M. (2003). Relationships among subjective and objective measures of tongue strength and oral phase swallowing impairments. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12:40-50.
  52. Hind JA, Nicosia MA, Roecker EB, Carnes ML, & Robbins J. (2001). Comparison of effortful and noneffortful swallows in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82:1661- 1665.
  53. Nicosia MA, Hind JA, Roecker EB, Carnes M, Doyle J, Dengel GA, & Robbins J. (2000). Age effects on the temporal evolution of isometric and swallowing pressure. Journal of Gerontology: MEDICAL SCIENCES, 55A: M634-M640.
  54. Solomon NP, Robin RA, & Luschei ES. (2000). Strength, endurance, and stability of the tongue and hand in Parkinson Disease. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43: 256-267.
  55. Lazarus CL, Logemann JA, Pauloski BR, Rademaker AW, Larson CR, Mittal BB, & Pierce M. (2000). Swallowing and tongue function following treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43:1011-1023.
  56. Crow HC, & Ship JA. (1996). Tongue strength and endurance in different aged individuals, Journal of Gerontology: MEDICAL SCIENCES. 51A: M247-M250.
  57. Theodoros DG, Murdoch BE, & Stokes P. (1995). A physiological analysis of articulatory dysfunction in dysarthric speakers following severe closed-head injury. Brain Injury, 9:237-254.
  58. Solomon NP, Lorell DM, Robin DA, Rodnitzky RL, & Luschei ES. (1995). Tongue strength and endurance in mild to moderate Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of Medical Speech Pathology, 3:15-26.
  59. Robbins J, Levine R, Wood J, Roecker EB, & Luschei E. (1995). Age effects on lingual pressure generation as a risk factor for dysphagia. Journal of Gerontology: MEDICAL SCIENCES. 50: M257-M262, 1995.
  60. Murdoch BE, Attard MD, Ozanne AE, & Stokes PD. (1995). Impaired tongue strength and endurance in developmental verbal dypraxia: a physiological analysis. European Journal of Disorders of Communication, 30:51-64.
  61. Perlman AL, Guthmiller Schultz J, & VanDaele DJ. (1993). Effects of age, gender, bolus volume, and bolus viscosity of oropharyngeal pressure during swallowing. Journal of Applied Physiology, 75:33-37.
  62. Robin DA, Goel A, Somodi LB, and Luschei ES. (1992). Tongue strength and endurance: relation to highly skilled movements. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35:1239-1245, 1992.
  63. Dworkin JF. (1980). Tongue force in normals and in dysarthric patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 23:828-837.
  64. Kydd WL. (1957). Maximum forces exerted on the dentition by the perioral and lingual musculature. Journal of the American Dental Association, 55:646-651.

Additional references related to tongue strength and exercise:

    1. Steele CM, & Cichero JAY. (2014). Physiological Factors Related to Aspiration Risk: A Systematic Review. Dysphagia, 29:295-304.
    2. Mano T, Katsuno M, Banno H, Suzuki K, Suga N, Hashizume A, Araki A, Watanabe H, Tanaka S, Yamamoto M, & Sobue G. (2014). Tongue pressure as a novel biomarker of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Neurology, 82:255-262.
    3. Palmer PM, Jaffe DM, McCulloch TM, Finnegan EM, Van Daele DJ, & Luschei ES. (2008). Quantitative contributions of the muscles of the tongue, floor-of-mouth, jaw and velum to tongue-to-palate pressure generation. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51:828-835.
    4. Hori K, Ono T, & Nokubi T. (2005). Coordination of tongue pressure and jaw movement in mastication. Journal of Dental Research, 85: 187-191.
    5. Hind JA, Nicosia MA, Gangnon R, & Robbins J. (2005). The effects of intraoral pressure sensors on normal young and old swallowing patterns. Dysphagia 20: 249-253.
    6. Hori K, Ono T, Hisayuki I, Nobuki T, & Kumakura I. (2005). Tongue pressure against the hard palate during swallowing in post-stroke patients. Gerodontology, 22: 227-233.
X